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BlackHistoryMonth200 names weshould knowfolks some in the present,some in thepast worthremembering

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  • luke1733luke1733 Posts: 1,490 ✭✭✭✭
    124. President Barack Obama *President of The United States*(The United States of America's first black president. Established Universal Healthcare for all Americans, pulled troops out of Iraq and Afghanistan which ended the war between the nations that had sent America into its 2nd Great Economic Depression (of which during this 2nd depression he became president). Is credited with using America's military forces to capture and assassinate the Taliban's leader Osama Bin Laden. Restored relationships with many countries that were put off by America's former presidents displays of arrogance.From 2008 to 2011, favorable opinion toward the United States rose in ten of fifteen countries surveyed by the Pew Global Attitudes Project, with an average increase of 26 percent. Changed the nations' drug laws and penalties which made it so many non-violent drug offenders in America would no longer receive 10 year prison sentences that were worse than violent offenders by passing the Fair Sentencing Act. Ended Don't Ask Don't Tell in the military. Saved the American auto industry and the Banks/Wall Street of America in the infamous Bailout. Passed the Stimulus Bill to stimulate the American economy to rise out of the depression. Helped with the capture of Gaddafi, reversed Bush's torture policies, boosted fuel efficiency standards, increased support for veterans, tightened sanctions on Iran, ended the Housing and Mortgage Crisis in America by making more regulations on what it would take to be approved for a loan, eliminated Catch 22 in Pay Equality laws, invested heavily in renewable technology, expanded stem cell research, helped South Sudan declare independence, killed the F-22. Elected twice as the 44th president of the USA. Created more employment jobs from 2009-2013 than the former president who lost jobs for America.
    graduate of Columbia University and Harvard Law School, where he served as president of the Harvard Law Review. He was a community organizer in Chicago before earning his law degree. He worked as a civil rights attorney and taught constitutional law at the University of Chicago Law School from 1992 to 2004. He served three terms representing the 13th District in the Illinois Senate from 1997 to 2004, running unsuccessfully for the United States House of Representatives in 2000. 2014 established My Brother's Keeper as an attempt to help children of color (who have for hundreds of years neglected by the system and receive the worse education) that are in impoverished areas receive a better education and skills that will try to provide them with a better opportunity than in the past to succeed in society.

    125. Colin Powell *General*Secretary of State (four-star general in the United States Army. He was the 65th United States Secretary of State, serving under U.S. President George W. Bush from 2001 to 2005, the first African American to serve in that position. During his military career, Powell also served as National Security Advisor (1987–1989), as Commander of the U.S. Army Forces Command (1989) and as Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff (1989–1993), holding the latter position during the Persian Gulf War. He was the first, and so far the only, African American to serve on the Joint Chiefs of Staff, and was the first of two consecutive African American office-holders to hold the key Administration position of U.S. Secretary of State. At age 52, he became the youngest officer, and first Afro-Caribbean American, to serve in this position. During this time, he oversaw 28 crises, including the invasion of Panama in 1989 to remove General Manuel Noriega from power and Operation Desert Storm in the 1991 Persian Gulf War. During these events, Powell earned his nickname, "the reluctant warrior." He rarely advocated military intervention as the first solution to an international crisis, and instead usually prescribed diplomacy and containment. Powell was a professional soldier for 35 years, holding a variety of command and staff positions and rising to the rank of General. After his service in the Vietnam war while in North Korea After a race riot occurred, where African American soldiers almost killed a Caucasian officer, Powell was charged by Emerson to crackdown on black militants; Powell's efforts led to the discharge of one soldier, and other efforts to reduce racial tensions. Powell has remained a republican who is not afraid to voice his opposition to some of the parties stances. During the second tour in Vietnam he was decorated for bravery after he survived a helicopter crash, single-handedly rescuing three others, including division commander Major General Charles Martin Gettys, from the burning wreckage.)
  • luke1733luke1733 Posts: 1,490 ✭✭✭✭
    126. Alabama's 4 Little Girls *Tragedy*(The 16th Street Baptist Church in Birmingham, Alabama was bombed on Sunday, September 15, 1963 as an act of white supremacist terrorism. The explosion at the African-American church, which killed four girls, marked a turning point in the United States 1960s Civil Rights Movement and contributed to support for passage of the Civil Rights Act of 1964.)

    127. National black theatre *Alliance for Black Theatre*(Larry Leon Hamlin founded the National Black Theatre Festival in 1989. His goal was to unite black theatre companies in America and ensure the survival of the genre into the next millennium. With the support of Dr. Maya Angelou, who served as the Festival's first Chairperson, the National Black Theatre Festival® was born. The '89 Festival offered 30 performances by 17 of America's best professional black theatre companies. It attracted national and international media coverage. According to The New York Times, "The 1989 National Black Theatre Festival was one of the most historic and culturally significant events in the history of black theatre and American theatre in general." Over 10,000 people attended. It lived up to its theme: An International Spirit. Held biennially, the NBTF attracts more than 65,000 people during the six-day event. NBTF celebrated its 20th anniversary in 2009.  The 2013 National Black Theatre Festival will be held in Winston-Salem, NC, July 29 - August 3. Festival highlights will include the Opening Night Gala, Celebrity Receptions,  Readers' Theatre of New Works, National Black Film Fest, the Youth Celebrity Project, Midnight Poetry Jam, TeenTastic (Collaborative Teen Initiative), International Colloquium, International Vendor's Market,  NBTF Fringe, Author’s Pavilion, Artists Networking Showcase,  Workshops and Seminars, the Larry Leon Hamlin Solo Performance Series, and 35 Black theatre companies from across the country and abroad offering over 100  performances.  More than 50 celebrities of stage, screen and television are expected to attend.)

    128. Split Family *Miscegenation*(Since writing on the history, the present and accomplishments of Af. Americans I thought it relevant to include definitions of what is an Af. Am. The basic understanding is when the majority of your blood is African/Black, but your ancestors and your people have originated in America before your birth;typically having a degree of Sub-Saharan African ancestry, or who are perceived to be dark-skinned relative to other "racial groups".. Due to the experiences in America as well as much of Africa and Latin American countries there comes the understanding and the absolute reality of mixed blood. About 30% of black Americans who take DNA tests to determine their African lineage prove to be descended from Europeans on their father's side, says Rick Kittles, scientific director of African Ancestry, a Washington, D.C., company that began offering the tests in 2003. Almost all black Americans whom Kittles has tested descended from African women, he says.
    http://usatoday30.usatoday.com/tech/science/genetics/2006-02-01-dna-african-americans_x.htm
    * A median proportion of European ancestry in African-Americans of 18.5 percent, with large variation among individuals.
    http://www.redorbit.com/news/science/1802162/clarifying_african_africanamerican_ancestry/
    It is obvious as to how the mixture came to be on the paternal side and how the children were raised solely by African Americans and had African American children.
    Until 1896 Black Americans were not allowed to marry each other. It is obvious what not having a father could do to a family. http://www.nytimes.com/1995/04/09/opinion/l-slavery-denied-legal-marriage-to-blacks-655096.html
    On another note, some African Americans miscegenated with Native Americans but due to recent DNA tests the numbers are not as high as often reported by African Americans who thought they had Native American ancestry; but often turned out to be European ancestry instead. It is for this reason, and not the one-drop rule, that most African Americans that do have mixed ancestry and are black also consider other mulattoes and people mixed with a majority of African blood to be considered Black; due to the fact that 30% of blacks in America all have mixed blood of one race and possibly a percentage of other races. This is no way is to be seen as a detractor from African Americans being and identifying with of the African race.)

    129. Ralph Bunche *Lawyer. Formed the United Nations.* (He was involved in the formation and administration of the United Nations.1st African American to receive the Nobel Peace Prize. He received the Peace Prize for his efforts as mediator between Arabs and Jews in the Israeli-Arab war in 1948-1949. These efforts resulted in armistice agreements between the new state of Israel and four of its Arab neighbours: Egypt, Jordan, Lebanon and Syria. As a high school student he used the money his community raised for his studies and a graduate scholarship at Harvard University, he earned a doctorate in political science. He was the first African American to gain a PhD in political science from an American university. He published his first book, World View of Race, in 1936. Bunche became one of the leaders of the Institute of Pacific Relations (IPR). He participated in the preliminary planning for the United Nations at the San Francisco Conference of 1945. Ralph Bunche, along with Eleanor Roosevelt, was considered instrumental in the creation and adoption of the UN Declaration of Human Rights. He participated in the 1963 March on Washington, where Martin Luther King gave his "I Have a Dream" speech, and also in the Selma to Montgomery, Alabama march, which contributed to the passage of the landmark Voting Rights Act of 1965 and federal enforcement of voting rights.
    "I have a bias in favour of both Arabs and Jews in the sense that I believe that both are good, honourable and essentially peace-loving peoples, and are therefore as capable of making peace as of waging war ...” – Ralph Bunche, 1949
  • luke1733luke1733 Posts: 1,490 ✭✭✭✭
    130. Black Mafia/Black Guerilla Family *Gang* (a prison and street gang founded in 1966 by George Jackson and W.L. Nolen while they were incarcerated at San Quentin State Prison in Marin County, California, north of San Francisco. Characterized as an ideologically based African-American Marxist revolutionary organization composed of prisoners. It was founded with the stated goals of eradicating racism, maintaining dignity in prison, and overthrowing the United States government. Associated with a number of leftist groups, including the Black Liberation Army, Symbionese Liberation Army, and Weather underground. Guilty of murdering Huey P. Newton.

    131. Archbishop Desmond Tutu *Archbishop*(he first black Archbishop of Cape Town and bishop of the Church of the Province of Southern Africa (now the Anglican Church of Southern Africa. In 1976, the protests in Soweto, also known as the Soweto Riots, against the government's use of Afrikaans as the compulsory language of instruction in black schools became a massive uprising against apartheid. From then on Tutu supported an economic boycott of his country. He vigorously opposed the "constructive engagement" policy of the Reagan administration in the United States, which advocated "friendly persuasion".Tutu rather supported disinvestment, although it hit the poor hardest, for if disinvestment threw blacks out of work, Tutu argued, at least they would be suffering "with a purpose". In 1985, the US and the UK (two primary investors into South Africa) stopped any investments. As a result, disinvestment did succeed, causing the value of the Rand to plunge more than 35 percent, and pressuring the government toward reform. Tutu pressed the advantage and organised peaceful marches which brought 30,000 people onto the streets of Cape Town.When a new constitution was proposed for South Africa in 1983 to defend against the anti-apartheid movement, Tutu helped form the National Forum Committee to fight the constitutional changes.Tutu is generally credited with coining the term Rainbow Nation as a metaphor for post-apartheid South Africa after 1994 under African National Congress rule. The expression has since entered mainstream consciousness to describe South Africa's ethnic diversity.Tutu has acknowledged the significant role Jews played in the anti-apartheid struggle in South Africa and has voiced support for Israel's security concerns, speaking against suicide bombing. As of March 2012, Tutu was a member of the Advisory Board for Global March to Jerusalem.According to Paul Larudee, founding member of GM2J, the aim was to "march from many starting points and converge on Jerusalem, either reaching that destination or getting as close to it as possible" on 30 March 2012 as an act of nonviolent resistance to what he describes as Israel's Judaization of Jerusalem.
    In 2011, 27 members of the American Psychiatric Association boycotted the group's annual meeting in Honolulu, Hawaiʻi to protest against the selection of Tutu as speaker, as they objected to Tutu’s statement that Zionism has "very many parallels with racism", his description of Israel as an apartheid state, his call for academic and cultural boycotts of Israel, a position which conflicts with APA’s policy, and what the members regarded as his "strongly anti-Semitic comments" and "falsehoods about Israel". In January 2003, Tutu attacked British Prime Minister Tony Blair's stance in supporting American President George W. Bush over Iraq. Tutu asked why Iraq was being singled out when Europe, India and Pakistan also had many weapons of mass destruction.[98] In 2012, Tutu pulled out of an event in South Africa at which Blair was also due to appear, citing what he described as the former UK prime minister's "morally indefensible" decision to attack Iraq,[99] and called for him to face trial for alleged war crimes at the Hague.)

    132. Emmet Till *Tragedy*(was an African-American boy who was murdered in Mississippi at the age of 14 after reportedly flirting with a white woman. Till was from Chicago, Illinois, visiting his relatives in Money, Mississippi, in the Mississippi Delta region, when he spoke to 21-year-old Carolyn Bryant, the married proprietor of a small grocery store there. Several nights later, Bryant's husband Roy and his half-brother J. W. Milam arrived at Till's great-uncle's house where they took Till, transported him to a barn, beat him and gouged out one of his eyes, before shooting him through the head and disposing of his body in the Tallahatchie River, weighting it with a 70-pound (32 kg) cotton gin fan tied around his neck with barbed wire. His body was discovered and retrieved from the river three days later. Till was returned to Chicago and his mother, who had raised him mostly by herself, insisted on a public funeral service with an open casket to show the world the brutality of the killing. Tens of thousands attended his funeral or viewed his casket and images of his mutilated body were published in black-oriented magazines and newspapers, rallying popular black support and white sympathy across the U.S. Intense scrutiny was brought to bear on the condition of black civil rights in Mississippi, with newspapers around the country critical of the state. Although initially local newspapers and law enforcement officials decried the violence against Till and called for justice, they soon began responding to national criticism by defending Mississippians, which eventually transformed into support for the killers. Bryant and Milam were acquitted of Till's kidnapping and murder, but only months later, in a magazine interview, protected against double jeopardy, they admitted to killing him. Till's murder is noted as a pivotal event motivating the African-American Civil Rights Movement.)

    133. Angela Davis *Activist*(merged as a nationally prominent counterculture activist and radical in the 1960s, as a leader of the Communist Party USA, and had close relations with the Black Panther Party through her involvement in the Civil Rights Movement despite never being an official member of the party. Prisoner rights have been among her continuing interests; she is the founder of Critical Resistance, an organization working to abolish the prison-industrial complex. FBI director J. Edgar Hoover made Angela Davis the third woman and the 309th person to appear on the FBI's Ten Most Wanted Fugitive List. This was for her involvement in giving firearms to Jonathan Jackson in 1970 who held a courtroom hostage. Soon after, Davis became a fugitive and fled California. According to her autobiography, during this time she hid in friends' homes and moved from place to place at night. On October 13, 1970, FBI agents found her at the Howard Johnson Motor Lodge in New York City.[20] President Richard M. Nixon congratulated the FBI on its “capture of the dangerous terrorist, Angela Davis". On January 28, 1972, Garrett Brock Trapnell hijacked TWA Flight 2. One of his demands was Davis' release. cross the nation, thousands of people who agreed with her declaration began organizing a liberation movement. In New York City, black writers formed a committee called the Black People in Defense of Angela Davis. By February 1971 more than 200 local committees in the United States, and 67 in foreign countries worked to liberate Angela Davis from prison. Thanks, in part, to this support, in 1972 the state released her from county jail. In 1980 and 1984, Davis ran for Vice-President along with the veteran party leader of the Communist Party, Gus Hall. Davis is no longer a member of the Communist Party)
  • luke1733luke1733 Posts: 1,490 ✭✭✭✭
    134. Harriett Tubman also known as Moses *Savior*(Chief of the Underground railroad; which was a route of several very secretive safe houses and underground tunnels that slaves who escaped the plantations/slavery could use until they reached the North or areas free of slavery. Tubman escaped slavery and subsequently made more than nineteen missions to rescue more than 300 slaves and never lost a passenger. She later helped John Brown recruit men for his raid on Harpers Ferry, and in the post-war era struggled for women's suffrage. Susan B. Anthony worked with Tubman for women's suffrage. Early in her life, she suffered a severe head wound when hit by a heavy metal weight. The injury caused disabling seizures, narcoleptic attacks, headaches, and powerful visionary and dream experiences, which occurred throughout her life. A devout Christian, Tubman ascribed the visions and vivid dreams to revelations from God.
    Large rewards were offered for the return of many of the fugitive slaves, but no one then knew that Tubman was the one helping them. When the Southern-dominated Congress passed the Fugitive Slave Act of 1850, requiring law officials in free states to aid efforts to recapture slaves, she helped guide fugitives to present-day Southern Ontario in Canada, mainly St. Catharines, in the Niagara region. There, the historic Province of Upper Canada had outlawed the importation of slaves as early as 1793, and slavery was abolished altogether in 1834.When the American Civil War began, Tubman worked for the Union Army, first as a cook and nurse, and then as an armed scout and spy. The first woman to lead an armed expedition in the war, she guided the Combahee River Raid, which liberated more than 700 slaves in South Carolina. After the war, she retired to the family home in Auburn, New York, where she cared for her aging parents. She became active in the women's suffrage movement in New York until illness overtook her. Near the end of her life, she lived in a home for elderly African Americans that she had helped found years earlier.)

    135. Balkans-*International* (The Ottoman Army deployed an estimated 30,000 Black African troops and cavalrymen to its expedition in Hungary during the Austro-Turkish War of 1716–18. )

    136. Eastern Europe *International*(Over a period of 40 years, about 400,000 African students from various countries moved to Russia to pursue higher studies, including many Black Africans.[76][77] This extended beyond the Soviet Union to many countries of the Eastern bloc.
    137. China *International* (Nigerians possibly make up the largest group of Black Africans in China, with about 2,000 to 3,000 Nigerians in Guangdong in 2006. Most businessmen only stay temporarily.")
    138. India and Pakistan *International*(The Siddi are an ethnic group inhabiting India and Pakistan whose members are descended from Bantu peoples from Southeast Africa that were brought to the Indian subcontinent as slaves by Arab and Portuguese merchants.Although it is commonly believed locally that "Siddi" derives from a word meaning "black",[112] the term is actually derived from "Sayyid", the title borne by the captains of the Arab vessels that first brought Siddi settlers to the area.In the Makran strip of the Sindh and Balochistan provinces in southwestern Pakistan, these Bantu descendants are known as the Makrani. There was a brief "Black Power" movement in Sindh in the 1960s and many Siddi are proud of and celebrate their Black African ancestry)
    139. Southeast Asia *International* (The Negritos are believed to be the earliest inhabitants of Southeast Asia, remnants of the earliest populations from the Out of Africa migration. Negrito means “little black people” in Spanish (negrito is the Spanish diminutive of negro, i.e., "little black person"); it is what the Spaniards called the short black people they encountered in the Philippines)
    140. Arabian Peninsula *International*(Historians estimate that between the advent of Islam in 650 and the abolition of slavery in the Arabian Peninsula in the mid-20th century, 10 to 18 million Black Africans were enslaved by Arab slave traders and taken to the Arabian Peninsula and neighboring countries.Due to the sex-biased flow of female slaves to serve as concubines in harems in the Arabian Peninsula and neighboring countries, the castration of male slaves to serve as harem guards, the death toll of Black African slaves from forced labor, and the assimilation of the children of female slaves and Arab owners into the Arab owners' families, there are very few remaining distinctive black communities in the Arabian Peninsula and neighboring countries today. Genetic studies have found significant African female-mediated gene flow in Arab communities in the Arabian Peninsula and neighboring countries, with an average of 38% of African maternal lineages in Yemen,16% in Oman-Qatar,and 10% in Saudi Arabia-United Arab Emirates.Although distinctive and self-identified black communities have been reported in countries such as Iraq with a reported 1.2 million black people, in the Arabian Peninsula and neighboring countries, most of those of identifiable African descent are classified and identify as Arab, not black.
    141. Famous Dances *Dancing*(Mashed potato, whop, cabbage patch, stepping, step shows, the twist, watusi, hammer, camel walk, moonwalk)
    142. Afro-Asian *International*(modern descendants of aboriginal, mostly uncontacted, Asian ethnic groups with direct genetic ties to ancient first-wave migrants coming out of continental Africa. Historically, Afro-Asian populations have been marginalized as a result of human migration and social conflict.)
  • luke1733luke1733 Posts: 1,490 ✭✭✭✭
    134. Harriett Tubman also known as Moses *Savior*(Chief of the Underground railroad; which was a route of several very secretive safe houses and underground tunnels that slaves who escaped the plantations/slavery could use until they reached the North or areas free of slavery. Tubman escaped slavery and subsequently made more than nineteen missions to rescue more than 300 slaves and never lost a passenger. She later helped John Brown recruit men for his raid on Harpers Ferry, and in the post-war era struggled for women's suffrage. Susan B. Anthony worked with Tubman for women's suffrage. Early in her life, she suffered a severe head wound when hit by a heavy metal weight. The injury caused disabling seizures, narcoleptic attacks, headaches, and powerful visionary and dream experiences, which occurred throughout her life. A devout Christian, Tubman ascribed the visions and vivid dreams to revelations from God.
    Large rewards were offered for the return of many of the fugitive slaves, but no one then knew that Tubman was the one helping them. When the Southern-dominated Congress passed the Fugitive Slave Act of 1850, requiring law officials in free states to aid efforts to recapture slaves, she helped guide fugitives to present-day Southern Ontario in Canada, mainly St. Catharines, in the Niagara region. There, the historic Province of Upper Canada had outlawed the importation of slaves as early as 1793, and slavery was abolished altogether in 1834.When the American Civil War began, Tubman worked for the Union Army, first as a cook and nurse, and then as an armed scout and spy. The first woman to lead an armed expedition in the war, she guided the Combahee River Raid, which liberated more than 700 slaves in South Carolina. After the war, she retired to the family home in Auburn, New York, where she cared for her aging parents. She became active in the women's suffrage movement in New York until illness overtook her. Near the end of her life, she lived in a home for elderly African Americans that she had helped found years earlier.)

    135. Balkans-*International* (The Ottoman Army deployed an estimated 30,000 Black African troops and cavalrymen to its expedition in Hungary during the Austro-Turkish War of 1716–18. )

    136. Eastern Europe *International*(Over a period of 40 years, about 400,000 African students from various countries moved to Russia to pursue higher studies, including many Black Africans.[76][77] This extended beyond the Soviet Union to many countries of the Eastern bloc.

    137. China *International* (Nigerians possibly make up the largest group of Black Africans in China, with about 2,000 to 3,000 Nigerians in Guangdong in 2006. Most businessmen only stay temporarily.")

    138. India and Pakistan *International*(The Siddi are an ethnic group inhabiting India and Pakistan whose members are descended from Bantu peoples from Southeast Africa that were brought to the Indian subcontinent as slaves by Arab and Portuguese merchants.Although it is commonly believed locally that "Siddi" derives from a word meaning "black",[112] the term is actually derived from "Sayyid", the title borne by the captains of the Arab vessels that first brought Siddi settlers to the area.In the Makran strip of the Sindh and Balochistan provinces in southwestern Pakistan, these Bantu descendants are known as the Makrani. There was a brief "Black Power" movement in Sindh in the 1960s and many Siddi are proud of and celebrate their Black African ancestry)

    139. Southeast Asia *International* (The Negritos are believed to be the earliest inhabitants of Southeast Asia, remnants of the earliest populations from the Out of Africa migration. Negrito means “little black people” in Spanish (negrito is the Spanish diminutive of negro, i.e., "little black person"); it is what the Spaniards called the short black people they encountered in the Philippines)

    140. Arabian Peninsula *International*(Historians estimate that between the advent of Islam in 650 and the abolition of slavery in the Arabian Peninsula in the mid-20th century, 10 to 18 million Black Africans were enslaved by Arab slave traders and taken to the Arabian Peninsula and neighboring countries.Due to the sex-biased flow of female slaves to serve as concubines in harems in the Arabian Peninsula and neighboring countries, the castration of male slaves to serve as harem guards, the death toll of Black African slaves from forced labor, and the assimilation of the children of female slaves and Arab owners into the Arab owners' families, there are very few remaining distinctive black communities in the Arabian Peninsula and neighboring countries today. Genetic studies have found significant African female-mediated gene flow in Arab communities in the Arabian Peninsula and neighboring countries, with an average of 38% of African maternal lineages in Yemen,16% in Oman-Qatar,and 10% in Saudi Arabia-United Arab Emirates.Although distinctive and self-identified black communities have been reported in countries such as Iraq with a reported 1.2 million black people, in the Arabian Peninsula and neighboring countries, most of those of identifiable African descent are classified and identify as Arab, not black.

    141. Famous Dances *Dancing*(Mashed potato, whop, cabbage patch, stepping, step shows, the twist, watusi, hammer, camel walk, moonwalk)

    142. Afro-Asian *International*(modern descendants of aboriginal, mostly uncontacted, Asian ethnic groups with direct genetic ties to ancient first-wave migrants coming out of continental Africa. Historically, Afro-Asian populations have been marginalized as a result of human migration and social conflict.)
  • luke1733luke1733 Posts: 1,490 ✭✭✭✭
    143. King Zumbi *Brazil*(Zumbi was a black freedom fighter in Brazil in the 1700s and was leader of Palmares a settlement for runaway slaves at it`s height it had 30,000 people and was run very much like a tribe in Africa. November 20 is celebrated, chiefly in Brazil, as a day of Afro-Brazilian consciousness. Zumbi was the last of the leaders of the Quilombo dos Palmares, a fugitive settlement in the present-day state of Alagoas, Brazil.Quilombos were fugitive settlements or African refugee settlements. Quilombos represented free African resistance which occurred in three forms: free settlements, attempts at seizing power, and armed insurrection. Members of quilombos often returned to plantations or towns to encourage their former fellow Africans to flee and join the quilombos. If necessary, they brought others by force and sabotaged plantations. Anyone who came to quilombos on their own were considered free, but those who were captured and brought by force were considered slaves and continued to be so in the new settlements. They could be considered free if they were to bring another captive to the settlement. Quilombo dos Palmares was a self-sustaining republic of Maroons escaped from the Portuguese settlements in Brazil, "a region perhaps the size of Portugal in the hinterland of Bahia".At its height, Palmares had a population of over 30,000. Forced to defend against repeated attacks by Portuguese colonists, many warriors of Palmares were expert in capoeira, a martial arts form that was brought to and enhanced in Brazil by African slaves at about the 16th century on.
    144. Sundown town-*Sayings* a town, city, or neighborhood in the US that was purposely all-white. The term came from signs that were allegedly posted stating that people of color had to leave the town by sundown. They are also sometimes known as “sunset towns” or “gray towns” Cities like this are reportedly still in existence in 2014 in Alabama.

    145. Dr. Cheikh Anta Diop *Historian*(showed through historical evidence and writings from many countries including Egypt that Egypt was Black African and not a mixed race people such as the middle east. The Egyptians called themselves and their country the land of Kemet. Kemet in their language means black. As silly and preposterous it is to have to write this down it is necessary in the face of hundreds of years of attempts to make Egypt white or not black. Even to this day the subject is heavily argued, mainly due to the obvious modern day presence of mixed race blood of (Black, Arabian, European). Before the thousands of years of documented invasions from the British and the Arabians the Egypt that spanned East Africa and North East Africa before Alexandria and Cleopatra was African black. Herodotus said Egyptians had black skin and woolly hair, which is how he said the Ethiopians looked too. Aristotle called both the Ethiopians and Egyptians black. In ancient times they spoke Egyptian, the stuff they wrote in hieroglyphics. That language came to Egypt from Ethiopia about 12,000 years ago. Of course, the language could have been brought to Egypt by some forgotten war, but it seems it came from settlers: one study shows the maternal blood line of Egyptians also goes back to Ethiopia. Dr. Cheikh Anta Diop was a historian, anthropologist, physicist, and politician who studied the human race's origins and pre-colonial African culture. Cheikh Anta Diop University, in Dakar, Senegal, is named after him. Diop supported his arguments with references to ancient authors such as Herodotus and Strabo. For example, when Herodotus wished to argue that the Colchian people were related to the Egyptians, he said that the Colchians were "black, with curly hair"[30] Diop used statements by these writers to illustrate his theory that the ancient Egyptians had the same physical traits as modern black Africans (skin colour, hair type). His interpretation of anthropological data (such as the role of matriarchy) and archeological data led him to conclude that Egyptian culture was a Black African culture. In linguistics, he believed in particular that the Wolof language of contemporary West Africa is related to ancient Egyptian. Diop consistently held that Africans could not be pigeonholed into a rigid type that existed somewhere south of the Sahara, but they varied widely in skin color, facial shape, hair type, height, and a number of additional factors, just like other human populations. In his "Evolution of the Negro World" in Présence Africaine (1964), Diop castigated European scholars who posited a separate evolution of various types of humankind and denied the African origin of homo sapiens. Diop's theory on variability is also supported by a number of scholars mapping human genes using modern DNA analysis. This has shown that most of human genetic variation (some 85–90%) occurs within localized population groups, and that race only can account for 6–10% of the variation. Arbitrarily classifying Maasai, Ethiopians, Shillouk, Nubians, etc., as Caucasian is thus problematic, since all these peoples are northeast African populations and show normal variation well within the 85–90% specified by DNA analysis.[39] Modern physical anthropologists also question splitting of peoples into racial zones. They hold that such splitting is arbitrary insertion of data into pre-determined pigeonholes and the selective grouping of samples. He accused his critics of having used the narrowest possible definition of "Blacks" in order to differentiate various African groups such as Nubians into a European or Caucasoid racial zone. Under the "true negro" approach, Diop contended that those peoples who did not meet the stereotypical classification were attributed to mixture with outside peoples, or were split off and assigned to Caucasoid clusters.)
  • luke1733luke1733 Posts: 1,490 ✭✭✭✭
    146. Dr. John Henrik Clarke*Historian* (shows the history of Africa before 332bc. Clarke was a Pan-Africanist American writer, historian, professor, and a pioneer in the creation of Africana studies and professional institutions in academia starting in the late 1960s. Clarke advocated for studies on the African-American experience and the place of Africans in world history. He challenged academic historians and helped shift the way African history was studied and taught. Clarke was "a scholar devoted to redressing what he saw as a systematic and racist suppression and distortion of African history by traditional scholars." He accused his detractors of having Eurocentric views. His writing included six scholarly books and many scholarly articles. He edited anthologies of black writing, as well as his own short stories, and more general interest articles.[4] He was co-founder of the Harlem Quarterly (1949–51), book review editor of the Negro History Bulletin (1948–52), associate editor of the magazine Freedomways, and a feature writer for the Pittsburgh Courier and the Ghana Evening News. Christopher Columbus and the African Holocaust.

    147. Rev. Dr. W. Franklyn Richardson *Activist* (Dr. Richardson leads the largest African American church in Westchester County, New York. He continues to guide and administer to the spiritual needs of Grace’s more than 3,000 parishioners. He is chairman of the National Action Network. )
    148. Dr. Amos Wilson *Historian*(an African-American author who dealt heavily with documenting the causes of black violence in black communities.)
    149. Dr. Yosef Ben-Jochannan *Historian*(Historian that dealt heavily with controversial topics such as Black religion; black jews from Ethiopia, ancient Nile Valley civilizations, and Egyptology. He received doctoral degrees in Cultural Anthropology and Moorish History from the University of Havana and the University of Barcelona, Spain. In 1950, Ben-Jochannan began teaching Egyptology at Malcolm King College, then at City College in New York City. From 1976 to 1987, he was an adjunct professor at Cornell University.

    150. Dr. Chancellor Williams-*Historian*(author of The Destruction of Black Civilization. Williams earned an undergraduate degree in Education in 1930 followed by a Master of Arts degree in History in 1935, both from Howard University. After completing a doctoral dissertation on the socioeconomic significance of the storefront church movement in the United States since 1920, he was awarded a Ph.D. in history and sociology by American University in 1949.)
     
    151. Tony Evans *Preacher*(Dr. Evans serves as Senior Pastor to the over 9,500 member Oak Cliff Bible Fellowship in Dallas, Texas, which was founded in 1976 with 10 members meeting at his home. He is also an author, and has a widely-syndicated radio and television broadcaster in the United States. He is also founder and president of The Urban Alternative, a national organization that seeks to bring about spiritual renewal in urban America through the church. The Urban Alternative radio broadcast, "The Alternative with Dr. Tony Evans" can be heard over 500 outlets daily throughout the U.S. and in over 40 countries worldwide. Dr. Evans was the first African-American to earn a doctorate in Theology from Dallas Theological Seminary.)
    152. Dr. Frederick K. Price *Preacher/Teacher*(He gained international renown through his Ever Increasing Faith ministries broadcast that is aired weekly on both television and radio. He has written books dispelling the myth of the curse of Canaan/Ham. Price is the author of some 50 books on faith, healing, prosperity, and the Holy Spirit. Although he had already operated in the five-fold ministry gift of an Apostle, in 2008, Apostle Price was publicly affirmed as an Apostle of Faith.)
  • luke1733luke1733 Posts: 1,490 ✭✭✭✭
    153. Louis Farrakhan *Leader of the NOI*(he was responsible for the most massive conversion of over 2,000,000 members of the Nation of Islam to traditional Islam in the United States of America. Established over 130 mosques in America. Famous for his 1,000,000 million black man march on Washington in 1995 calling on black men to renew their commitments to their families and communities.. Instrumental in preserving the original teachings of the longtime NOI leader, Elijah Muhammad. He was the man to stand behind the rebuilding of NOI, once it was disbanded by Elijah Muhammad's son. Tried to set up a city dedicated to black people in which it was black governed, black educated, black universities, black hospitals and black businesses called ministries. The city would be open to all races, but would be noted as a beacon for blacks to invest in an American city that would represent black interests in a way other American cities did not. He is described as anti-semitic and anti-white. He himself disputes these criticisms and claims to love all races. He rejected the deification of the founder Wallace D. Fard as Allah in person, the mahdi of the Holy Qur'an and messiah of the Bible, welcomed white worshippers who were once considered devils and enemies in the NOI as equal brothers, sisters, and friends. He has admitted to being made aware of plots to kill Malcolm X within the NOI. In the 1950s, Wolcott started his professional music career by recording several calypso albums as a singer under the name "The Charmer". One of his songs was on the top 100 Billboard Chart for five years in a row. In 1979, Farrakhan's group founded a weekly newspaper entitled The Final Call, Inc. 2005, a Black Entertainment Television (BET) poll voted Farrakhan the 'Person of the Year'. The Church of Scientology honored Farrakhan previously during its 2006 Ebony Awakening awards ceremony (which he did not attend). His power extends to various countries such as Libya, Morocco, Syria (where he accompanied Jesse Jackson to get American U.S. Navy pilot Lt. Robert O. Goodman released) and more. He announced acceptance of a $5 million interest-free loan from Libyan president Moammar Gadhafi. December 22, 1999 - Preaches a message of racial and religious harmony for all cultures. His new outlook was said to be from the after-effects of a near-death experience in March resulting from complications with radiation treatments for prostate cancer. Establishes the Louis Farrakhan Prostate Cancer Foundation. Due to his following, and before President Obama, it would not have been crazy for a person to see him as possibly the most powerful black man in America in the 1990's.)

    154. Shaka Zulu *Chief* (the most influential leader of the Zulu Kingdom. He is widely credited with uniting many of the Northern Nguni people, specifically the Mtetwa Paramountcy and the Ndwandwe into the Zulu Kingdom, the beginnings of a nation that held sway over the portion of southern Africa between the Phongolo and Mzimkhulu Rivers, and his statesmanship and vigour marked him as one of the most prominent Zulu kings.
    He has been called a military genius for his reforms and innovations, and condemned for the brutality of his reign.Because of his background as a soldier, Shaka taught the Zulus that the most effective way of becoming powerful quickly was by conquering and controlling other tribes. His teachings greatly influenced the social outlook of the Zulu people. The Zulu tribe soon developed a "warrior" mindset, which Shaka turned to his advantage.
    Most historians credit Shaka with initial development of the famous "bull horn" formation.[17] It was composed of three elements:
    1. The main force, the "chest," closed with the enemy Impi and pinned it in position. The warriors who comprised the "chest" were senior veterans.
    2. The "horns," while the enemy Impi was pinned by the "chest," would flank the Impi from both sides and encircle it; in conjunction with the "chest" they would then destroy the trapped force. The warriors who comprised the "horns" were young and fast juniors.
    3. The "loins," a large reserve, was placed, seated, behind the "chest" with their backs to the battle. The "loins" would be committed wherever the enemy Impi threaten to break out of the encirclement.
    Coordination was supplied by regimental "izinduna" (chiefs or leaders) who used hand signals and messengers. The scheme was elegant in its simplicity, and well understood by the warriors assigned to each echelon.

    155. The Real McCoy Elija McCoy *Inventor*(57 U.S. patents, most to do with lubrication of steam engines. Born free in Canada. He invented an automatic lubricator for oiling the steam engines of locomotives and ships, "Improvement in Lubricators for Steam-Engines" (U.S. Patent 129,84)

    156. Jan Matzeliger (Inventor: 274,207, 3/20/1883, Automatic method for lasting shoe Inventor that improved the telephone and the Light bulb
    421,954, 2/25/1890, Nailing machine
    423,937, 3/25/1890, Tack separating and distributing
    459,899, 9/22/1891, Lasting machine
    415,726, 11/26/1899, Mechanism for distributing tacks, nails, etc.
    467,840, 7/24/1891, The second advanced lasting shoe machine
    Matzeliger was born in Paramaribo (then Dutch Guyana, now Suriname). His father was a Dutch engineer. He was very wealthy and very well educated. His mother was a black Surinamese slave. He had some interest in mechanics in his native country, but his efforts at inventing a shoe-lasting machine began in the United States after a life of working in a machinery shop.
  • luke1733luke1733 Posts: 1,490 ✭✭✭✭
    157. Lewis Latimer *Inventor* (Inventor that improved the telephone and the Light bulb. n 1874, he co patented (with Charles W. Brown) an improved toilet system for railroad cars called the Water Closet for Railroad Cars (U.S. Patent 147,363).
    In 1876, Alexander Graham Bell employed Latimer, then a draftsman at Bell's patent law firm, to draft the necessary drawings required to receive a patent for Bell's telephone.
    In 1879, he moved to Bridgeport, Connecticut with his brother, William, his mother, Rebecca, and his wife, Mary. Other family members, his brother George A. Latimer and his wife Jane, and his sister Margaret and her husband Augustus T. Hawley and their children, were already living there. Lewis was hired as assistant manager and draftsman for the U.S. Electric Lighting Company, a company owned by Hiram Maxim, a rival of Thomas A. Edison. Latimer received a patent in January 1881 for the "Process of Manufacturing Carbons", an improved method for the production of carbon filaments used in lightbulbs.) The Edison Electric Light Company in New York City hired Latimer in 1884, as a draftsman and an expert witness in patent litigation on electric lights. Latimer is credited with an improved process for creating a carbon filament at this time, which was an improvement on Thomas Edison's original paper filament, which would burn out quickly. [7] When that company was combined in 1892 with the Thomson-Houston Electric Company to form General Electric, he continued to work in the legal department. When General Electric and Westinghouse Electric Company formed the "Board of Patent Control" in 1896, to coordinate patent licensing and litigation, Latimer was employed as chief draftsman. In 1911 he became a patent consultant to law firms.
    158.. Otis Boykin (best known for inventing an improved electrical resistor used in computers, radios, television sets and a variety of electronic devices. His resistor helped reduce the cost of those products. Otis Boykin also invented a variable resistor used in guided missile parts, a control unit for heart stimulators, a burglar-proof cash register and a chemical air filter. In total, Otis Boykin patented twenty-eight electronic devices.)

    159. Puff Daddy/ P. Diddy/Sean Combs *Businessman*(Hip Hop star, clothing designer for Sean John, entrepreneur who rose from rap producer to owning one of the few liquor companies owned by a black man by the name of Ciroc. In 2013 Forbes estimated Combs' net worth at $580 million, making him the richest figure in hip hop. Combs has won three Grammy Awards and two MTV Video Music Awards, and is the producer of MTV's Making the Band. His non-music business ventures include the clothing lines Sean John and "Sean by Sean Combs" – for which he earned a Council of Fashion Designers of America award – a movie production company, and two restaurants. Combs founded Daddy's House Social Programs, an organization to help inner city youth, in 1995. Programs include tutoring, life skills classes, and an annual summer camp. Along with Jay-Z, he pledged $1 million to help support victims of Hurricane Katrina in 2005, and donated clothing from his Sean John line to victims. He has donated computers and books to New York schools. Puff Daddy got his first national recognition by producing hip-hop legend Notorious Big under his famous record label BAd Boy Records)

    160. Jay Z *Businessman*(One of Hip-hop's greatest and most influential rappers and business men.Forbes estimated Carter's net worth at nearly $500 million. He is one of the world's best-selling artists of all time having sold more than 75 million records, while receiving 17 Grammy Awards for his musical work, and numerous additional nominations. As an entrepreneur and investor, Jay-Z co-owns the 40/40 Club, and is the co-creator of the clothing line Rocawear. Currently he shares ownership in the NBA team Brooklyn Nets. He is the former president of Def Jam Recordings, co-founder of Roc-A-Fella Records, and the founder of Roc Nation. He also founded the sports agency Roc Nation Sports and is a certified NBA and MLB sports agent. As an artist, he holds the record for most number one albums by a solo artist on the Billboard 200 with 13. On December 11, 2009, Jay-Z was ranked as the tenth-most successful artist of the 2000s by Billboard as well as the fifth top solo male artist and fourth top rapper behind Eminem, Nelly, and 50 Cent. He was also ranked the 88th greatest artist of all time by Rolling Stone. Jay-Z is also credited as the executive producer of the basketball video game NBA 2K13, where he worked on the look and feel of the game along with its soundtrack. On April 2, 2013, ESPN reported that Jay-Z will be launching his own sports agency, Roc Nation Sports. By 2008, Jay-Z got actively involved in politics during the 2008 presidential campaign, where he supported increased voter participation and helped send voters to polling stations. The rapper pledged to use his upcoming world tour to raise awareness of and combat global water shortage. On a much lesser note he is also famous for his rap feud with Queensbridge rapper Nas)
  • luke1733luke1733 Posts: 1,490 ✭✭✭✭
    161. Black Inventors (the common knowledge is that many inventions that were invented by blacks were stolen and claimed to be invented by whites and unable to be patented by blacks due to the fact blacks had no rights. To this day there is a lot of controversy over some of the inventions credited to black inventors versus their counterparts for this reason. I have left off controversial inventions and only applied the inventions that are accepted by all)

    162. William Harry Barnes *Inventor* (1887–1945) was an ear, nose, and throat doctor at the Frederick Douglass Hospital in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. He invented a medical instrument that allowed doctors to reach the pituitary gland more easily. Found on the underside of the brain, the pea-sized pituitary gland secretes hormones directly into the blood. He called his invention a hypophyscope.
    Dr. Barnes also perfected a way to remove a patient's tonsils in just ten minutes, with no bleeding.

    163.Leonidas Berry *Inventor* (1902–1995) was also a doctor. He invented the Eder-Berry biopsy gastroscope in 1955. His invention made it easier for doctors to collect tissue from the inside of the stomach without surgery. Five years after inventing his gastroscope, Dr. Berry studied the stomachs of alcoholics. He discovered that it was the liver, and not the stomach, that became diseased because of too much alcohol. This changed the diagnosis and treatment of alcoholism forever.

    164. Michael Crosslin *Inventor*(invented computerized blood pressure and pulse monitoring devices called the Medtek 410 and 420. The Medtek 410 took the guesswork out of monitoring a patient’s vital signs, allowing medical professionals to diagnose and treat patients.)
    165. Elmer Samuel Imes *Inventor*(was an astrophysicist who made improvements on infrared spectrometers. Infrared spectrometers measure the amount of infrared light, invisible to the naked eye, in the atmosphere or outer space. Imes’ improved infrared spectrometers improved rocket engines and chemical lasers.)
    166. Percy Lavon Julian*Inventor* (was known as “the soybean chemist.” Julian’s first invention was for coating paper with a soy protein instead of a more expensive milk protein. That technique was used in a product called Aero-Foam. Aero-Foam smothered oil and gasoline fires by blanketing them in the soy-based foam. Aero-foam was adopted by the U.S. Navy and saved the lives of thousands of sailors and naval airmen during World War II.)
    167.John King (1925–2000) worked with the aerospace and safety industries. He invented an early warning sonic transducer in 1972. A sonic transducer analyzes sound waves to determine distances, speeds, and other units of measurement. King also invented a NASA-approved alarm system in 1999. This helped determine how far planets were away and their location.
    168. Edwin Roberts Russell *Inventor*worked on the Manhattan Project during World War II. The Manhattan Project was a secret program to develop the atomic bomb. Russell holds eleven patents related to nuclear energy and its processes.
    169. Earl Shaw*Inventor* He invented the spin-flip tunable laser. This device made it easier for scientists to adjust the strength of the laser beam to perform delicate operations.
    170. Walter Lincoln Hawkins *Inventor*(held eighteen U.S. and 129 foreign patents, but his most famous one was for a weather-resistant plastic coating for telephone wires. Before Hawkins’s invention, telephone cables were coated with lead, making them too heavy, expensive, and toxic for general use. Hawkins’s invention increased the life of telephone wires by seventy years)
    171. Granville T. Woods *Inventor* (African-American inventor who held more than 50 patents. He is also the first American of African ancestry to be a mechanical and electrical engineer after the Civil War. One of his notable inventions was the Multiplex Telegraph, a device that sent messages between train stations and moving trains. His work assured a safer and better public transportation system for the cities of the United States.
    In 1885, Woods patented an apparatus which was a combination of a telephone and a telegraph. The device, which he called "telegraphony", would allow a telegraph station to send voice and telegraph messages over a single wire. He sold the rights to this device to the American Bell Telephone Company. Thomas Edison later filed a claim to the ownership of this patent. Granville Woods often had difficulties in enjoying his success as other inventors made claims to his devices. Thomas Edison made one of these claims, stating that he had first created a similar telegraph and that he was entitled to the patent for the device. Woods was twice successful in defending himself, proving that there were no other devices upon which he could have depended or relied upon to make his device.
    172. Dr. Write *Inventor* (vaccinations and smallpox and chemotherapy)
  • luke1733luke1733 Posts: 1,490 ✭✭✭✭
    173. National Association of Black Journalists *Journalists*(The purpose of the NABJ shall be to bring about a union of Black journalists dedicated to truth and excellence in the news, and full equality in the industry in order:
    (a) To expand and balance the media’s coverage of the Black community and Black experience.(b) To encourage students to identify careers in journalism.(c) To actively seek out and identify job opportunities for Black journalists, and to serve as a clearinghouse for such opportunities.(d) To assist Black journalists in upgrading their skills for upward mobility toward managerial and supervisory positions.(e) To strengthen the ties between Blacks who work in majority-owned media and Blacks who work in the Black-owned media.(f) To sensitize the majority-owned media to racism.(g) To award scholarships and internships to Black students.(h) To be an exemplary group of professionals that honors excellence and outstanding achievement among Black journalists.(i) To encourage journalism schools to appoint Black professors.(j) To work with high schools to identify potential Black journalists. (k) To do other activities that are not prohibited to non-profit corporations by Section 501 (c)(3) of the United States Internal Revenue Code, as amended, and the rulings and regulations thereunder.the members of the National Association of Black Journalists, believing that Black journalists nationwide should bind themselves together in an effort to increase Black employment in the media, to increase the number of Blacks in management positions, to encourage and educate young Blacks interested in pursuing a journalism career, and to monitor and sensitize all media to racism, do enact and establish this Constitution for the governance of our members.)
    174. NAACP *organization*(African-American civil rights organization in the United States, formed in 1909. The National Association for Advancement of Colored People was Formed by WEB DuBois. Its mission is "to ensure the political, educational, social, and economic equality of rights of all persons and to eliminate racial hatred and racial discrimination". The Race Riot of 1908 in Abraham Lincoln's hometown of Springfield, Illinois had highlighted the urgent need for an effective civil rights organization in the U.S. This event is often cited as the catalyst for the formation of the NAACP. In its early years, the NAACP concentrated on using the courts to overturn the Jim Crow statutes that legalized racial segregation. It was influential in winning the right of African Americans to serve as officers in World War I. Six hundred African-American officers were commissioned and 700,000 men registered for the draft. The following year, the NAACP organized a nationwide protest, with marches in numerous cities, against D. W. Griffith's silent movie Birth of a Nation, a film that glamorized the Ku Klux Klan. The NAACP's Legal department, headed by Charles Hamilton Houston and Thurgood Marshall, undertook a campaign spanning several decades to bring about the reversal of the "separate but equal" doctrine announced by the Supreme Court's decision in Plessy v. Ferguson.1990s, the organization restored its finances, permitting the NAACP National Voter Fund to launch a major get-out-the-vote offensive in the 2000 U.S. presidential elections. 10.5 million African Americans cast their ballots in the election. This was one million more than four years before,[24] and the NAACP's effort was credited by observers as playing a significant role in Democrat Al Gore's winning several states where the election was close,his aspect of the NAACP came into existence in 1936 and now is made of over 600 groups and totaling over 30,000 individuals. The NAACP Youth & College Division is a branch of the NAACP in which youth are actively involved. There are too many achievements of the NAACP to list for this. I think it would suffice to say they have been the single most powerful political tool created by African Americans for the purpose of creating human rights for all colored people who did not have them)

    175. Rainbow Push Coalition *organization*(The organization pursues civil rights by challenging courts and legal documents of institutional and political racism more than other civil rights organizations it also pursues social justice,and political activism. PUSH Excel, a program that emphasized keeping inner city youth in school while assisting them with job placement. The organization was also highly successful at compelling major corporations with a presence in the black community to adopt affirmative action programs which committed the companies to hire more black and minority executives and supervisors. It also influenced these companies to include black suppliers, wholesalers, and distributors on their purchasing lists. PUSH also used prayer vigils and boycotts as a means to win job concessions for minorities from white businesses. -
    Through Operation PUSH, Rev. Jackson established a platform from which to protect black homeowners, workers and businesses. The organization staged several boycotts including early 1980s boycotts of Anheuser Busch and Coca Cola as well as a 1986 boycott of CBS television affiliates. The boycotts of Budweiser, and Coke as well as one against Kentucky Fried Chicken were touted for having won minority job concessions from white businesses.

    176. Black Expo *Expo*(an event set up to expose black businesses. More than 2,500 exhibitors and 500,000 visitors have attended black expos since 1998. The first annual Atlanta Black Family Expo will take place in February 2014. This historical expo brings the African-American family and individuals together to experience seminars, entertainment and business opportunities. With the help of three television stations and three radio stations promoting this event, there will be 10,000 plus African-Americans celebrating the enduring strengths and traditional values of the African-American Family.)
  • luke1733luke1733 Posts: 1,490 ✭✭✭✭
    177. Oakwood University *University*(7th Day Adventist private University. The school focuses on providing a higher education learning environment for Seventh-Day Adventists. The University has performed well in external rankings, having listed among the Best Baccalaureate Colleges in the Southern Region (#31) and #28 on the list of Best Historically Black Colleges and Universities by the U.S. News & World Report, tied with Alabama A&M University (also in Huntsville) and the University of Maryland Eastern Shore. The school first opened in 1896 with 16 students. to educate the recently-freed African-Americans of the South. Classes were offered in various trades and skills. In 1904, the name was changed to Oakwood Manual Training School, and it was chartered to grant degrees in 1907. In 1917, the school offered its first instruction at the postsecondary level, and in that same year it changed its name to Oakwood Junior College. In 1944, the name Oakwood College was adopted. Today many undergrads follow in their parents footsteps as quite a few attendees have been known to be the 5th generation to attend the school and graduate. One family of 16 known as the Holland Family, that also now owns a dorm in the university named after the parents that sent them all to be the 2nd largest black family in the US to graduate college, sent all 16 children to school there to graduate and in the 1950's all the way up to continuing to have their children's children attend in 2014. The main campus consists of 23 buildings spread across 105 acres. US News and World Report ranks it mong the top ten HBCUs with highest graduation rates. In its first-ever HBCU ranking, the September 2012 EBONY Magazine top-ranked Oakwood’s science program. Additionally, Oakwood is the nation’s fifth-ranked producer of undergraduate black applicants to medical schools, according to the Association for American Medical Colleges. Oakwood’s ISO 9001: 2008 designation distinguishes it as the first and only HBCU, as well as the first and only Alabama and/or SDA higher education institution, so qualified.

    178. Flip Wilson *Superstar*("TV's first black superstar"- According to Time Magazine.Actor-Comedian-Host of TV Show Flip Wilson entertained America for over on the Flip Wilson Show.He played host to many African-American entertainers, including The Jackson Five, and The Temptations and performed in comedy sketches. He greeted all his guests with the "Flip Wilson Handshake,": four hand slaps, two elbow bumps finishing with two hip-bumps. George Carlin (one of the world's greatest comedians)was one of the show's writers His beginnings started after bouncing from foster homes to reform school, 16-year-old Wilson lied about his age and joined the United States Air Force. His outgoing personality and funny stories made him popular; he was even asked to tour military bases to cheer up other servicemen. He then began performing at San Francisco's Plaza's nightclub and throughout California. At first Wilson would simply ad-lib onstage, but eventually he added written material and his act became more sophisticated. The Flip Wilson Show aired through 1974, generating high ratings and popularity among viewers and winning strong critical acclaim, with an unprecedented eleven Emmy Award nominations during its run, winning two. Wilson also won a Golden Globe award for Best Actor in a Television Series. The phrase "What you see is what you get" was often used by Wilson's Geraldine character. When you’re hot, you’re hot; when you’re not, you’re not!"; "The Devil made me do it."
    179. Sammy Davis Jr *Tap Dancer*("Mister Show Business". Mr. Wonderful. The Rat Pack [Frank Sinatra, Dean Martin and Sammy Davis Jr]Actor, Tap Dancer, Singer, Fastest Hollywood Gunslinger ever recorded. Johnny Cash recalled that Sammy was said to be capable of drawing and firing a Colt Single Action Army revolver in less than a quarter of a second.Noted for his impersonations of actors and other celebrities. At the age of three Davis began his career in vaudeville with his father and Will Mastin as the Will Mastin Trio, which toured nationally. Davis was the victim of racism throughout his life and was a large financial supporter of the Civil Rights movement. Davis was of Afro-Cuban, and African-American descent, and that Davis, Jr. claimed he was Puerto Rican because he feared anti-Cuban backlash would hurt his record sales. Davis explained before he joined the military his parents shielded him his entire life from racism. He states this as his awakening: Overnight the world looked different. It wasn't one color any more. I could see the protection I'd gotten all my life from my father and Will. I appreciated their loving hope that I'd never need to know about prejudice and hate, but they were wrong. It was as if I'd walked through a swinging door for eighteen years, a door which they had always secretly held open." Davis was one of Las Vegas's most prized acts with the Rat Pack. Davis was a headliner at The Frontier Casino in Las Vegas, but he was required (as were all black performers in the 1950s) to lodge in a rooming house on the west side of the city, instead of in the hotels as his white colleagues did. Davis later refused to work at places which practiced racial segregation. His demands eventually led to the integration of Miami Beach nightclubs and Las Vegas, Nevada casinos.In the 1960's In Japan, Davis appeared in television commercials for coffee, and in the United States, he joined Sinatra and Martin in a radio commercial for a Chicago car dealership.When Frank Sinatra arranged for the Rat Pack to perform at an inaugural ball for newly elected John F. Kennedy, Davis was unceremoniously removed from the program because he was black. This made Davis begin to side with Richard Nixon. Davis also made a USO tour to South Vietnam at President Nixon's request. Nixon invited Davis and his wife, Altovise, to sleep in the White House in 1973, the first time an African American was invited to do so. Davis was a long-time donor to the Reverend Jesse Jackson's Operation PUSH organization. He was known for raising thousands of dollars in benefit concerts to support civil rights activists.On December 11, 1967, NBC broadcast a musical-variety special entitled Movin' With Nancy.In addition to the Emmy Award-winning musical performances, the show is notable for Nancy Sinatra and Sammy Davis, Jr. greeting each other with a kiss, one of the first black-white kisses in U.S. television history.His recording of The Candy Man was a #1 hit in 1972 earning him a Pop Male Vocalist of the year Grammy nomination.

  • luke1733luke1733 Posts: 1,490 ✭✭✭✭
    180. Michael Jordan "Air Jordan"- "*Businessman/Athlete*(Billionaire Athlete and Probably the world's greatest basketball player ever and Shoe Salesman. He now owns an NBA franchise known as the Charlotte Bobcats. He won 6 Championships with the Chicago Bulls by winning 3 championships in a row and then retiring for years, due to the murder of his father, only to return to the NBA and win 3 more championships in a row. He scored 63 points in a playoff game. He was known for hanging in the air for what appeared to seem like forever. During his time in the air he would maneuver the ball in multiple juxtapositions to avoid defenders. Jumping in the air while moving forward and while moving the ball around while shooting became a signature Jordan trademark move in the NBA. He was also known for sticking his tongue out every time he dribbled or shot the basketball. Also his clothing style of wearing his shorts lower than most NBA figures did at the time was a trademark Jordan was known for. He also became known in his later years for a turn-around fadeaway jumpsuit that was an unstoppable post-move that could be used under the basket or at the 3 point line. Jordan was known for being one of the NBA's most creative and prolific scorers the game ever saw. His fierce drive showed on his face and he was known to argue with teammates. He was a general on the floor and directed all his players and coached them on what they needed to do to improve. He did this while playing in the game on the floor. He is famous for winning championships while having the flu, and beating the best basketball players such as Magic Johnson, Isaiah Thomas, Karl Malone, Charles Barkley, Patrick Ewing, Larry Bird, Dominique Wilkins, Reggie Miller and a host of others that claimed they would have won more championships if Jordan did not play.
    Before he entered the NBA he led his North Carolina Tarheels College Basketball team to a championship as a rookie. When he entered the NBA he won rookie of the year. His 15 year NBA career spanned winning the slam dunk contest twice, 5 MVP awards, 6 finals MVP awards, and 3 all star game mvps, named on of the 50 greatest players in NBA history, averaged 30.1 a game for his career-that is number 1 to any other player in NBA history, 10 NBA scoring titles, 172 games with 40 or more points, 39 games with 50 or more points,
    He made $90 million in 2013 even though he's been retired from the NBA for over 18 years (excluding his return to the Wizards). In 2013 his earnings eclipsed all other retired athletes and current athletes.
    Jordan took the court his rookie year in 1984 in a pair of red and black Air Jordans, which matched the Bulls’ uniforms, but did not feature any white per NBA protocol. The league banned the shoes and fined Michael $5,000 every game for wearing them. Nike covered the fines and capitalized on the attention with a commercial with the following voiceover: “On September 15th, Nike created a revolutionary new basketball shoe. On October 18th, the NBA threw them out of the game. Fortunately, the NBA can’t stop you from wearing them.” A marketing juggernaut was born. Jordan owns his own shoe brand that is completely separate from Nike and he shares a shoe brand with Nike. One of every two basketball shoes sold in the U.S. last year carried the Jordan brand.
    Outside of Nike, MJ’s earnings get a boost from long-time endorsement partners Gatorade, Hanes, Upper Deck and Five Star Fragrances for his cologne line. He’s also added deals with 2K Sports and Novant Health in recent years. In addition, he owns seven restaurants and a car dealership.

    181. Floyd Mayweather "Pretty Boy" "Money Mayweather" *Boxer*- (Undefeated boxer. 45-0. He has achieved six boxing championships in five different weight classesHe won belts at Super featherweight, Lightweight, Light Welterweight, Welterweight, Light Middle Weight. He is a five-division world champion, having won eight world titles and the lineal championship in three different weight classes. He has entered a contract for $200 million with Showtime for Showtime to pick his next 5 fights so that he has no choice in who he fights at the age of 37 to answer the criticisms that he was avoiding fights. Notable fights he fought were against: Oscar De La Hoya, Diego Corrales, Arturo Gatti, Zab Judah, Sugar Shane Moseley, Castillo, and Miguel Marquez. Floyd Mayweather promotes himself and owns himself. Due to this reason he is one of the highest paid athletes in the world. For 2012 and 2013 he was the highest paid athlete in all American sports.)

    182. Gregory Hines-*Tap Dancer*( A very Great Tap Dancer. He began tap dancing at 2 years old and professionally at age 5. He would often use his feet as an instrument with jazz musicians and on the song you could hear him tapping his feet the way a drummer beats the drum. He was known for his performances on NY's Broadway in the 1970's and 1980's. Hines was an avid improviser. He did a lot of improvisation of tap steps, tap sounds, and tap rhythms alike. His improvisation was like that of a drummer, doing a solo and coming up with all sorts of rhythms. He also improvised the phrasing of a number of tap steps that he would come up with, mainly based on sound produced. "'He purposely obliterated the tempos,' wrote tap historian Sally Sommer, 'throwing down a cascade of taps like pebbles tossed across the floor. In that moment, he aligned tap with the latest free-form experiments in jazz and new music and postmodern dance.' In 1988, he successfully petitioned the creation of National Tap Dance Day, which is now celebrated in 40 cities in the United States. It is also celebrated in eight other nations. Gregory Hines was on the Board of Directors of Manhattan Tap, he was a member of the Jazz Tap Ensemble, and a member of the American Tap Foundation (formerly the American Tap Dance Orchestra). He was a good teacher, influencing tap dance artists Savion Glover, Dianne Walker, Ted Levy, and Jane Goldberg. Hines was also an actor. He shared a special relationship with tap dancer and actor Sammy Davis Jr and stated on Sammy's deathbed: in 1990, as the great entertainer lay dying of throat cancer, unable to speak. After Davis died, a choked-up Hines spoke at Davis's funeral of how Sammy had made a gesture to him, "as if passing a basketball … and I caught it." Hines spoke of the honor that Sammy thought that Hines could carry on from where he left off.
  • luke1733luke1733 Posts: 1,490 ✭✭✭✭
    183. Rosewood Massacre *Self sufficient Black community*(A self-sufficient black community torn apart by racism. A violent, racially motivated conflict that took place during the first week of January 1923 in rural Levy County, Florida, United States. Although the numbers have been drastically changed over the years, At least six blacks and two whites were killed, and the town of Rosewood was abandoned and destroyed in what contemporary news reports characterized as a race riot. Florida had an especially high number of lynchings in the years before the massacre, including the well-publicized Perry race riot where a black man had been burned at the stake in December 1922. The attacks in Rosewood were spurred by unsupported accusations that a white woman in nearby Sumner had been beaten and possibly raped by a black drifter, white men from nearby towns lynched a Rosewood resident. When black citizens defended themselves against further attack, several hundred whites combed the countryside hunting for black people and burned almost every structure in Rosewood. Survivors hid for several days in nearby swamps and were evacuated by train and car to larger towns. Although state and local authorities were aware of the violence, they made no arrests for the activities in Rosewood. The town was abandoned by black residents during the attacks. None ever returned.
    Sixty years after the rioting, the story of Rosewood was revived in major media when several journalists covered it in the early 1980s. Survivors and their descendants organized to sue the state for having failed to protect them. In 1993, the Florida Legislature commissioned a report on the events. As a result of the findings, Florida became the first U.S. state to compensate survivors and their descendants for damages incurred because of racial violence. The massacre was the subject of a 1997 film directed by John Singleton. In 2004, the state designated the site of Rosewood as a Florida Heritage Landmark.

    184. Cyprian Uzoh *African Inventor*- In 2006, he was celebrated as Inventor of the Year for the patent "Method of making electroplated interconnection structures on integrated circuit chip" (USPTO 6,709,562), one of the most valuable patents in the field of semiconductor science and technology. He is the main pioneer of modern high performance copper interconnect technologies and has discovered, co-developed and co-implemented the various critical elements and technologies that led to the successful implementation of copper interconnect technology at IBM Corporation, as well as in the entire semiconductor industry.
    In other words, this technology enabled the introduction of copper in the making of chips, and it was revolutionary. Cyprian Emeka Uzoh, more than anybody else, was responsible for the discovery of the electroplating technology in this industry.
    IBM put this technology into production in the late 1990s and is now the main device wiring method that uses electric field and metal slurries to polish metals at low forces.

    185. Professor Souleymane Mboup *African Inventor*-He is mostly known for having, with other scientists from the US and Europe, discovered a new HIV virus referred to as HIV-2 as opposed to HIV-1, the first virus that was discovered.

    186. Professor Tebello Nyokong *African Inventor*-Pioneered research into photodynamic therapy specifically suited to the African environment.Photodynamic therapy (PDT) uses specially developed dyes to direct deadly light onto cancer cells, and is being researched all over the world as an alternative to chemotherapy.

    187. Bertin Nahum *African Inventor*- (created a robot called Rosa™ that assists surgeons with brain surgery. He started his company (Medtech SAS) that conceives surgical robots in 2002. In his mind, robots are one of the best means to help surgeons perform their tasks efficiently and with precision.)
    188. Nolence Mwangwego *African Inventor*(Nolence Mwangwego is a Malawian linguist who has invented a writing system mean for writing Malawian native languages. The system was invented in 1979. Nolence Mwangwego has recently published a book written in Chichewa thanks to his invention.)
  • luke1733luke1733 Posts: 1,490 ✭✭✭✭
    edited February 2014
    189. Various African Inventions:*Inventions* Oil Palm was discovered in West Africa in native oil palm plant (Elaeis guineensis). It dates back to 3000 BC and was used throughout Africa an Egypt. Yam cultivation, and hence farming began between the years 8000 and 3000 BC. Yams were first cultivated in West African and New Guinea.
    Glass tools used for shaving were discovered in 2000 AD and made from volcanic glass found along the Africa Njoro River.
    The water pipe also more commonly known as the Bong was created around 1460 BC in Ethiopia and was originally used for smoking hashish. It is believed to be a predecessor of the hookah. The first water pipes were built into the ground.
    Iron was first smelt in furnaces around 450 BC in Nigeria by the People of the Nok culture in West Africa. In 1928, archaeologists unearthed an amazing culture in the Nigerian village of Nok. They discovered by heating certain rocks they were able to reshape it into useful tools.)
    190. West Indies Emancipation Day-*Freedom*August 1st
    191. African Americans Emancipation Day- *Freedom*January 1st
    192. Sir Isaiah Morter/Knight Commander of the Distinguished Service Order of Ethiopia *Philanthropist/Charity*- Sent $100,000 to the Universal Negro Improvement Association in 1924 and was contested in the courts of Belize, British Honduras, England and America for donating money to Marcus Garvey's organization that attempted to improve the lives of African Americans.
    193. Black Hell Fighters- *Soldiers*(WWI at he Marne and at Verdun, when American fighters fell back on the battle lines from the German hordes, the black hell fighters stood before the cannonade, charged and shouted "there will be a hot time in the old town to-night.")
    194. Inception of African American Slavery-*Slavery* John Hawkins asked permission of Queen Elizabeth of England to take the black from Africa into her colonies of America and the West Indies and use them in their development. The Queen asked, "what consideration will you give them?" Hawkins said "They will be civilized and Christianized in the Colonies, for in their own country they are savages and barbarians." Under these pretenses the British Queen signed a charter empowering John Hawkins and others to remove from Africa millions of men, women and children.

    195. Black Engineers club *Engineers*(National Society of Black Engineers Club-The National Society of Black Engineers (NSBE), with more than 29,900 members, is one of the largest student-governed organizations in the country. Founded in 1975, NSBE now includes more than 394 College, Pre-College, and NSBE Professional chapters in the United States and abroad. NSBE’s mission is "to increase the number of culturally responsible black engineers who excel academically, succeed professionally and positively impact the community."The society offers a variety of NSBE and Corporate-sponsored scholarship and award opportunities to pre-college, collegiate undergraduate and graduate student, and technical professional members.Scholarship packages range in value from $500 to $10,500.

    196. Def Jam *Record Label*(an American record label, focused predominantly on hip hop and urban music, owned by Universal Music Group, and operates as a part of The Island Def Jam Music Group.In the UK, the label takes on the name Def Jam UK and is operated through Virgin EMI, while in Japan, it is Def Jam Japan operating through Universal Sigma Music. In 2012, IDJMG became the number-one Rhythmic label, for having 7 number 1s, from Rihanna, Kanye West, Jay Z, Ne-Yo, and Justin Bieber. Def Jam was founded by Rick Rubin (who is not black)in his dorm room in Weinstein Hall at New York University and its first release was a single by his punk-rock group Hose. Russell Simmons joined Rubin shortly after they were introduced to each other by Vincent Gallo. Jay-Z was president in 2012. Russell Simmons was also president.

    197. Bankers Financial Group *Mortgage Company and future Bank* (A mortgage company owned by the Holland Family that graduated from Oakwood University as the 2nd largest black family to graduate from college in the United States. The mortgage companies aim was to promote black home ownership throughout the United States. Records show it was established in 1992 and incorporated in Maryland. Current estimates show this company has an annual revenue of $2.5 to 5 million and employs a staff of approximately 20 to 49. Companies like Bankers Financial Group usually offer: Comparing Mortgages, Mortgage Protection Life, Mortgage Services, Stated Income Mortgage Loans, Commercial Mortgage Loans. Nathaniel Holland, Larry Holland, Ronald Holland and Harvey Holland did close to $100 million in mortgages in 2005. The company began in 1988. They have given back to the 7th day Adventist church and community through donations to: Sligo Elementary, Takoma Academy, George E. Peters, and Oakwood University. Offered free state-mandated continuing education courses in conjunction with Fannie Mae and the Greater Capital Area Association of Realtors.)

    198.Tens of thousands of small black businesses and restaurants *Business*

    199. Babyface *Producer* (Definition of class. One of the most successful songwriters of American music. During a day when music changed to very explicit sexual lyrics, Babyface stood as one of the few singers/songwriters that continued to write songs with classy tunes that would focus on the struggles and rewards of love for over 25 years while maintaining an image few male pop-musicians aspire to show which is one of integrity and values. He is a ten-time Grammy Award-winning American R&B musician.
    He has written and produced over 27 No. 1 R&B hits throughout his career. He has written for Madonna, Michael Jackson, Whitney Houston, Bobby Brown, Karyn White, Pebbles, Paula Abdul and Sheena Easton, Toni Braxton, Boyz II Men, Patti Labelle, Chaka Khan, Janet Jackson, Al Green, Beyonce, Michael Bolton, Celine Dion, El Debarge, Kenny G, En Vogue, Sisqo, Pink, Mariah Carey, The Deele,Tevin Campbell, Eric Clapton, Mary J. Blige, Ken Hirai, Ashanti, Lil Wayne, Paula Abdul.In 1989, Edmonds co-founded LaFace Records with Reid. Three of the label's early artists TLC, Usher, and Toni Braxton were successful, the former becoming one of the best selling female groups in music history. Braxton's eponymous 1993 debut album went on to sell over eight million copies, and earned her the 1994 Grammy Award Best New Artist. TLC's first two albums on LaFace—1992's Ooooooohhh... On the TLC Tip and 1994's CrazySexyCool—combined to sell more than 15 million copies in the U.S. CrazySexyCool won the 1996 Grammy Award for Best R&B album. In 1999, a 25-mile (40-km) stretch of Interstate 65 that runs through Indianapolis was renamed Kenneth "Babyface" Edmonds Highway.On December 2, 2012, Babyface worked at a local Nathan's for charity. All proceeds went to Toys for Tots. He is a Singer-songwriter, guitarist, keyboardist, record producer, film producer, entrepreneur. He plays Guitar, mandolin, keyboard. He also produced the film Soul Food, Josie and the Pussycats (2001), and also the soundtrack for the film The Prince of Egypt. Edmonds also worked with David Foster to compose "The Power of the Dream," the official song of the 1996 Summer Olympics, performed by superstar Céline Dion.)

  • luke1733luke1733 Posts: 1,490 ✭✭✭✭
    200. Marcus Garvey *Leader* (If you care to know the central nucleus of who the Rev. Dr. Martin Luther King stated he received his philosophies from and to who also Malcolm X stated he also received his philosophies from then you will discover that there is no other earlier source of black African American thought that is before the Marcus Garvey. Malcolm X's parents met at a Marcus Garvey convention in Montreal.The man who went head to head with WEB DuBois and convinced him that DuBois was wrong and that he, Garvey was right about the plight blacks should take for sovereignty and self-sufficiency to secure their future in America and beyond. Marcus Garvey wrote a book entitled: The Philosophies and Opinions of Marcus Garvey. I say this word very seriously, but unlike any other book I have read, he states many prophecies on the black race that in his time were not true and in my time have played out exactly as he predicted. It is scary. Marcus Garvey's Universal Negro Improvement Association claimed to have 400,000,000 followers; ironically he also claimed every negro alive was a part of the movement. The approximate membership of his 900 branches was 6,000,000. The UNIA had 65,000 to 75,000 members paying dues to his support and funding. His philosophy is known as Garveyism which intended persons of African ancestry in the diaspora to "redeem" the nations of Africa and for the European colonial powers to leave the continent. His essential ideas about Africa were stated in an editorial in the Negro World entitled "African Fundamentalism", where he wrote: "Our union must know no clime, boundary, or nationality… to let us hold together under all climes and in every country…"
    Garvey was born to an affluent Jamaican family. His father Marcus Mosiah Garvey was a mason. As a child he travelled the world to Costa Rica, India, Panama, United States of America, England, London and Africa. All these countries he returned to in his adulthood, including Ethiopia/Abyssinia, Ghana, Geneva, Kenya and Canada.
    In Canada, Marcus Garvey Day is held annually on 17 August in Toronto;
    Garvey started his own newspaper and circulated it throughout America, Jamaica, West Indies and South Africa. South Africa quickly called to the US and demanded Garvey stop printing his newspaper. His connections were in the lands purchased in Liberia for Blacks around the world to move to to start a new society. Although Garvey was never able to govern this land, the land he purchased was successfully met by blacks in his day who left Jamaica, America and India to attempt to fulfill Garvey's effort.

    The difference between Garvey's U.N.I.A and other black organizations was the UNIA sought independence of government, while the other black organizations sought to make the Negro a secondary part of existing governments; thus rendering himself always a second class citizen.
    He was a Jamaican political leader, publisher, journalist, entrepreneur, and orator who was a staunch proponent of the Black nationalism and Pan-Africanism movements, to which end he founded the Universal Negro Improvement Association and African Communities League (UNIA-ACL). He founded the Black Star Line, part of the Back-to-Africa movement, which promoted the return of the African diaspora to their ancestral lands.

    His criticism against Du Bois was that his staff was either white or very near white; it was an advancement for mulattoes and not Negroes. The Advancement meant that blacks should try to look white and was setting off a trend in the black community for blacks to choose sexual mates that were of the lightest of their race. It is due to Garvey's conversation with Du Bois, that Garvey stated he stayed in America in order to teach black people what racial pride meant due to finding it necessary to combat the ignorance and evil that DuBois was indoctrinating into black people. In DuBois's church no black person could sit in the front. When invited to DuBois's church by DuBois, Garvey sat in the front and was asked to please sit in the back in order to allow whites to sit in the front. Garvey stated the NAACP is a scheme to destroy the Negro race.
    In 1919 The Chicago Defender newspaper attempted to entrap Garvey, but Garvey was found innocent and nothing happened to the Chicago Defender's attempt to infiltrate Garvey's organization.
    For a people that have had lives taken from them on behalf of a nation's practice of genocide, to a nation making it impossible for the people to leave, to the people that in return gave their lives for the same country to receive it's own independence in the American Revolution, WWI, WWII, Vietnam when they had no independence or rights, to dying for all races to receive human rights, to being unjustly taxed in reference to being represented, to working for free, working as slaves, working as indentured servants, first to be fired, to working to entertain a nation through dancing, singing, playing sports, inventing all to receive nothing but chastisement for the audacity to honestly say the residuals were not fair in comparison to how the nation pays other citizens for their contributions in compensations is a criminal act to deny the negro his payment for so much that he has given to a nation that has systematically been documented to benefit so much economically and universaly from taking from the Negro.

  • luke1733luke1733 Posts: 1,490 ✭✭✭✭
    Garvey was shot at for starting a successful newspaper and a company that dealt with Ships called the Black Star Line. Basically this is like an African American today owning a spaceship for Garvey in 1919 to have a Ship. Over 50,000 people packed Madison Square Garden in New York to witness Garvey's Black Star Line. Instantly America's government sent thieves in to his offices to rob his offices of legal papers and office records. Employees that did not work for him were said to work for him and they lied about his business. His ships were destroyed and then the government told Garvey he still had to pay off the loans for his ships and his employees for the very business they destroyed. This resulted in Garvey being indicted by the US for fraud.
    After the lawsuits that stole money from Garvey, Garvey continued on and built the Black Cross Navigation and Trading Company ship that sailed to Liberia in December of 1923.
    The UNIA held an international convention in 1921 at New York's Madison Square Garden. Also represented at the convention were organizations such as the Universal Black Cross Nurses, the Black Eagle Flying Corps, and the Universal African Legion. Garvey attracted more than 50,000 people to the event and in his cause. The UNIA had 65,000 to 75,000 members paying dues to his support and funding. The national level of support in Jamaica helped Garvey to become one of the most influential leaders of the 20th century on the island.
    Garvey worked to develop a program to improve the conditions of ethnic Africans "at home and abroad" under UNIA auspices. On 17 August 1918, he began publishing the Negro World newspaper in New York, which was widely distributed. Garvey worked as an editor without pay until November 1920. He used Negro World as a platform for his views to encourage growth of the UNIA. By June 1919, the membership of the organization had grown to over two million, according to its records.
    In the year 1900 Garvey stated:"The trick of the capitalist is to sir up local agitation to draw attention away from his crimes against the masses and common man. The capitalist draws agitation among the nations has them shoot or kill some citizen of the capitalists' country, then he influences the agencies of his Government to call upon the home authorities for military protection. A harsh diplomatic note is sent that inspires an insult or further injury, then an ultimatum is served or a demand made for indemnities or war declared with the hope of arresting from the particular weak, unfortunate country such territories where oil, rubber or other valuable minerals or resources are to be found. This kind of dollar diplomacy is a disgrace to our civilization and for the sake of humanity should be stopped".
    Rastafarians consider Garvey to be a religious prophet, and sometimes even the reincarnation of Saint John the Baptist. This is partly because of his frequent statements uttered in speeches throughout the 1920s, usually along the lines of "Look to Africa, when a black king shall be crowned for the day of deliverance is at hand!" Many of Garvey's prophecies have come true such as America's war for oil (which he prophesied would come even though it did not happen until years later), the black prison rate being the option America would use to transition black males from slavery to incarceration, a bomb that could destroy the world being created in the future, a second world war to follow the first world war; to which this prophecy he lived to see.)

    Schools, colleges, highways, and buildings in Africa, Europe, the Caribbean, and the United States have been named in his honor. The UNIA red, black, and green flag has been adopted as the Black Liberation Flag. Since 1980, Garvey's bust has been housed in the Organization of American States' Hall of Heroes in Washington, D.C.
    During a trip to Jamaica, Martin Luther King and his wife Coretta Scott King visited Garvey's shrine on 20 June 1965 and laid a wreath.In a speech he told the audience that Garvey "was the first man of color to lead and develop a mass movement. He was the first man on a mass scale and level to give millions of Negroes a sense of dignity and destiny. And make the Negro feel he was somebody."
    Jamaica honored Marcus Garvey as it's First National Hero. To hear Marcus Garvey go to: )

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